Professor Dr. Mohamed Ridza bin Wahiddin
Vice-Chancellor Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Malaysia
- DSc (Higher Doctoral Degree in Quantum Optics), UMIST, Mancheser, UK
- PhD (Quantum Optics), UMIST, Manchester, UK
- MSc (Quantum Optics), UMIST, Manchester, UK
- Bsc. (Physics), UMIST, Manchester, UK
Professor Emeritus Dato' Dr. Tengku Mohd T. Sembok
Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and Internationalisation) at National Defence University, Malaysia
- (B.Sc (Hons) - Computer Science, Brighton Polytechni
- Master of Science (M.Sc.) - Computer Science, Lowa University
- Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) - Computer Science, Glasgow University
Information Retrieval, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Wisdom towards Technological Singularity
Information retrieval and search engine have made constant progress in proving their performance. Lotfi Zadeh, in 2005 WSEAS Fuzzy Systems conference, pointed out that existing search engines do not have an important capability, i.e. deduction capability. The capability to synthesize an answer to a query by drawing on bodies of information which reside in various parts of the knowledge base. That is the intelligence in making deduction. Prerequisite to this ability is the knowledge representation adopted in the systems.
It is said that the fourth industrial revolution is powered by artificial intelligence and it will transform the workplace from tasks based characteristics to the human centred characteristics. The question is what intelligence is and what is human centred characteristics are all about? There is no formal definition of intelligence as far as scholars and scientists are concerned. Intelligence is thus indirectly defined through behaviourism definition. In 1950 Alan Turing came out with what so called the Turing Test. The test is to challenge the computer to deceive human that it is human. The test is still stand until now. In 1980 John Searle came out with a scenario called a Chinese Room. Where a person not knowing Chinese is able to communicate in Chinese without knowing Chinese. In 1988 Rapaport came out with a Korean Room where a Korean professor is able to master all the work of Shakespeare through translation in English. All three scenarios above converse to the notion of natural language understanding. Things are said to possess intelligence if they are able to understand natural language. Thus one component of Artificial Intelligence is known as Natural Language Understanding.
Next we come to what is human centred characteristics? Among the human characteristics are able to acquire knowledge, discover new knowledge, and making decisions wisely based on certain principles. Mind the word “wisely” which connotes possession of wisdom. That means to say that after artificial intelligence a computer needs an artificial wisdom. To make “decisions wisely based on certain principles” implies that there exists assess to principles in the forms of rules, guidelines and belief. If a computer can possess intelligence, wisdom and belief system then it is approaching the state of technological singularity which will cause intelligence explosion where an upgradable intelligent agent, such as a computer, will enter the state of self-improvement cycles. Each new generation becoming more intelligent causing an explosion in intelligence which resulting in a powerful superintelligence that qualitatively surpasses human intelligence.
The question is how possibly we can program a computer to approach the state of technological singularity? Possibly a kind of Belief-Representation System (William J. Rapaport 1984), a symbiosis between philosophy, religion and artificial intelligence, can realise the implementation of Artificial Wisdom. The aim is to construct an AI system that can reason and make decision with wisdom based on beliefs and cognitive tools of intelligence with cognitive states. The cognitive states include goals, intentions, desires, hopes, besides knowledge and beliefs.
The sort of AI system that is of concern here is a representation and reasoning system whose knowledge base contains information about the world based on existing extensional information, together with intensional information and one’s beliefs. This framework can be extended to handle interaction between various cognitive agents in order for the system to learn more between each other based on their beliefs and reasoning in such a manner that show to possess wisdom.
A belief-representation system must also be sensitive to the intentionality of belief and to the associated phenomenon in extensional world with facts and figures of the current information and knowledge in repositories and social networks. The Thesis of Intentionality, first suggested by Franz Brentano (1874) as a distinguishing mark of mental, as opposed to physical, phenomena. In 1951, Alonzo Church had developed an intensional calculus. Later, possible world approach to semantics provided tools for a comprehensive study in intensional semantics. Richard Montague had applied the most important advantages of Church’s intensional calculus in his system. Unlike its forerunner, Montague grammar was built in a purely semantical way. Thanks to the new formal tools invented since Church’s work. All these inventions and tools can possibly be applied in the implementation of Artificial Wisdom and towards achieving Technological Singularity..